\$title Who owns the fish? \$ontext This problem was passed to my by my colleague Phil Graves. I also need to thank Erwin Kalvalagen for teaching me what is meant by a "cut" in integer programming. Thomas Rutherford Economics Department University of Colorado GIVEN 1. In a street there are five houses, painted five different colours. 2. In each house lives a person of different nationality 3. These five homeowners each drink a different kind of beverage, smoke different brand of cigar and keep a different pet. THE QUESTION: WHO OWNS THE FISH? HINTS 1. The Brit lives in a red house. 2. The Swede keeps dogs as pets. 3. The Dane drinks tea. 4. The Green house is on the left of the White house. 5. The owner of the Green house drinks coffee. 6. The person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds. 7. The owner of the Yellow house smokes Dunhill. 8. The man living in the centre house drinks milk. 9. The Norwegian lives in the first house. 10. The man who smokes Blends lives next to the one who keeps cats. 11. The man who keeps horses lives next to the man who smokes Dunhill. 12. The man who smokes Blue Master drinks beer. 13. The German smokes Prince. 14. The Norwegian lives next to the blue house. 15. The man who smokes Blends has a neighbour who drinks water. It has been asserted that Albert Einstein wrote this riddle early during the 19th century. He said that 98% of the world population would not be able to solve it. Erwin Kalvalagen points us to the web site, http://home.att.net/~numericana/answer/recreational.htm#einstein5 which comments on Einstein being the author of this riddle (supposedly early on in his career): "Finally, you may want to notice that the young Albert Einstein (1879-1955) could not possibly have authored the puzzle in this form: The Pall Mall brand of cigarettes was introduced by Butler & Butler in 1899 (sold to American Tobacco in 1907 and Brown & Williamson in 1994) and Alfred Dunhill was established in 1893 (starting to manufacture pipes in 1907) when Einstein was still a young man. However, the Blue Master brand was introduced by J. L. Tiedemann in 1937, when Einstein was 58!" Paul van der Eijk from GAMS writes: "I was looking at the construct you used, like: set match(*,*) Used to set bounds on Z; match(c,n) = yes; match("Red",n) = no; match(c,"Brit")=no; match("Red","Brit") = yes; z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(not match(c,n)) = 0; match(c,n) = no; ... I think this can be replaced by: z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"Brit") xor SameAs(c,"Red")) = 0; First time I see a good use of the xor operator!" \$offtext * When nextdoor=1 the green and white houses must be adjacent (there is a single unique solution) * When nextdoor=0 the green and white houses need not be adjacent (there are seven solutions). scalar nextdoor Defines the interpretation of hint 4 above /0/; * Define five sets defining the five characteristics of * each individual. The way the program is designed, the symbols * used to define characteristics must be distinct (e.g., you * cannot define an element of the smokes set S named "Red"). set h House /h1*h5/ c House colors /Red, Green, Yellow, Blue, White/, s Smokes / Pall-Mall, Dunhill, Blends, Prince, Blue-Master/, b beverages / Coffee, Milk, Beer, Water, Tea/, p Pet /Dogs, Birds, Cats, Horses, Fish/, n Nationality /Brit, Swede, Dane, Norwegian, German/ sol Set of total number of solutions /sol1*sol20/, isol(sol) Set of solutions which have been cut xcut(sol,h,c,s,b,p,n) Set used to cut solutions from the constraint set once they are found, xsol(sol,h,c,s,b,p,n) Set to report solutions which are found; * We need a second reference to the houses in order to express hint 4: alias (h,hh); variable obj Objective function (vacuous); binary variable z(h,c,s,b,p,n) Choice variable is 1 if we have h-c-s-b-p-n living on street; equations housing, colors, smokes, beverages, pets, nations,m4,m10,m11,m14,m15,cut,objdef; * One persone in each house: housing(h).. sum((c,s,b,p,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * Each of five colors appears: colors(c).. sum((h,s,b,p,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * Each of five types of smokes: smokes(s).. sum((h,c,b,p,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * Each of five beverages: beverages(b).. sum((h,c,s,p,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * Each of five varieties of pets: pets(p).. sum((h,c,s,b,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * Each of five nations: nations(n).. sum((h,c,s,b,p), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =e= 1; * 4. The Green house is on the left of the White house. m4(h).. sum((s,b,p,n), z(h,"Green",s,b,p,n)) =L= sum((s,b,p,n), z(h+1,"White",s,b,p,n))\$nextdoor + sum((hh,s,b,p,n)\$(ord(hh) gt ord(h)), z(hh,"White",s,b,p,n))\$(not nextdoor); * 10. The man who smokes Blends lives next to the one who keeps Cats. m10(h).. sum((c,b,p,n),z(h,c,"Blends",b,p,n)) =L= sum((c,s,b,n), z(h+1,c,s,b,"Cats",n)) + sum((c,s,b,n), z(h-1,c,s,b,"Cats",n)); * 11. The mann who keeps horses lives next to the man who smokes Dunhill. m11(h).. sum((c,s,b,n),z(h,c,s,b,"Horses",n)) =L= sum((c,b,p,n), z(h+1,c,"Dunhill",b,p,n)) + sum((c,b,p,n), z(h-1,c,"Dunhill",b,p,n)); * 14. The Norwegian lives next to the blue house. m14(h).. sum((c,s,b,p),z(h,c,s,b,p,"Norwegian")) =L= sum((s,b,p,n), z(h-1,"Blue",s,b,p,n)) + sum((s,b,p,n), z(h+1,"Blue",s,b,p,n)); * 15. The man who smokes Blends has a neighbour who drinks Water. m15(h).. sum((c,b,p,n),z(h,c,"Blends",b,p,n)) =L= sum((c,s,p,n), z(h-1,c,s,"Water",p,n)) + sum((c,s,p,n), z(h+1,c,s,"Water",p,n)); * The following constraint is used to eliminate solutions which have * already been found: cut(isol)\$card(isol).. sum(xcut(isol,h,c,s,b,p,n), z(h,c,s,b,p,n)) =l= 4; * The objective function is not meaningful but required for the mip problem type: objdef.. obj =e= 0; model einstein /all/; * Then start to eliminate options based on those hints which link specific * pairs of traits. If a hint indicates that two traits are linked, we can drop all * permutations in which one or the other but not both characteristics are present. * 1. The Brit lives in a red house. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"Brit") xor SameAs(c,"Red")) = 0; * 2. The Swede keeps Dogs as pets. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"Swede") xor SameAs(p,"Dogs")) = 0; * 3. The Dane drinks tea. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"Dane") xor SameAs(b,"Tea")) = 0; * 5. The owner of the Green house drinks coffee. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(c,"Green") xor SameAs(b,"Coffee")) = 0; * 6. The person who smokes Pall Mall rears Birds. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(s,"Pall-Mall") xor SameAs(p,"Birds")) = 0; * 7. The owner of the Yellow house smokes Dunhill. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(c,"Yellow") xor SameAs(s,"Dunhill")) = 0; * 8. The man living in the centre house drinks milk. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(b,"Milk") xor SameAs(h,"H3")) = 0; * 9. The Norwegian lives in the first house. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"Norwegian") xor SameAs(h,"H1")) = 0; * 12. The man who smokes Blue Master drinks Beer. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(b,"Beer") xor SameAs(s,"Blue-Master")) = 0; * 13. The German smokes Prince. z.fx(h,c,s,b,p,n)\$(SameAs(n,"German") xor SameAs(s,"Prince")) = 0; * End of screen specific pairs. We can now report the number of combinations * which remain: scalar npick Number of combinations remaining from which to choose 5; npick = sum((h,c,s,b,p,n)\$z.up(h,c,s,b,p,n), 1); display npick; * Tell GAMS to omit variables from the model which are fixed. einstein.holdfixed = yes; scalar solved Flag that we have not yet encountered an infeasibility /1/; * Find all the solutions: isol(sol) = no; xcut(isol,h,c,s,b,p,n) = 0; loop(sol\$solved, solve einstein using mip minimizing obj; if (einstein.modelstat eq 1, xsol(sol,h,c,s,b,p,n) = yes\$z.l(h,c,s,b,p,n); isol(sol) = yes; xcut(sol,h,c,s,b,p,n) = yes\$z.l(h,c,s,b,p,n); else solved=0; ); ); option xsol:0:0:1; display xsol;